Essay origin of life

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Free Essays Must Be Free! The Origin Of Life Essay While the free essays can give you inspiration for writing, they cannot be used 'as is' because they will not meet your assignment's requirements. The origin of Life There are many theories where life came from, but none of them is proven to be the right one. The obvious theory that life originated on earth is not accepted by everyone.

One reason of disbelief in this theory that life originated on earth is a lack of time. It was an early belief that life originated through a slow and long process many scientists do not share this belief thoughprobably too short and too long for the time life had on our planet.

Life must have been formed within a period of approximately million years.

essay origin of life

Another version of "panspermia" claimed by Francis Crick and Leslie Orgel is that life was brought to earth by a spaceship sent by a more intellectual species. This theory is called "directed panspermia". The last theory might be the least likely one, since there is no actual evidence for spaceships or species from other planets.

The "panspermia" theory can not be disproved and it might be possible that life came to earth via a comet. Bodies like comets contain organic molecules which are similar to the molecules of living organisms, but most scientists say that reactions creating these molecules take "place out there".

We can not find an answer for this question since neither theory can totally be proven. Supporters of the "panspermia" theory say that there was not enough time for life to originate. Supporters of the theory that life originated on earth can not prove that life did not come from outer space.

The Christian theory that life was created by God is abstract and will not be discussed further in this paper. Personally I believe in the theory that life was born on earth.DOI: As the frontiers of knowledge have advanced, scientists have resolved one creation question after another.

We now have a pretty good understanding of the origin of the Sun and the Earth, and cosmologists can take us to within a fraction of a second of the beginning of the universe itself. Figure 1. Origin-of-life studies became an experimental science with the Miller-Urey experiment, which produced organic molecules in a flask from components thought to be present in the paleogeological atmosphere—homemade primordial soup.

But how did soup ingredients become life? We know how life, once it began, was able to proliferate and diversify until it filled and in many cases created every niche on the planet. Yet one of the most obvious big questions—how did life arise from inorganic matter? Our progress on this question has been impeded by a formidable cognitive barrier. Because we perceive a deep gap when we think about the difference between inorganic matter and life, we feel that nature must have made a big leap to cross that gap.

The essential problem is that in modern living systems, chemical reactions in cells are mediated by protein catalysts called enzymes. The information encoded in the nucleic acids DNA and RNA is required to make the proteins; yet the proteins are required to make the nucleic acids. Furthermore, both proteins and nucleic acids are large molecules consisting of strings of small component molecules whose synthesis is supervised by proteins and nucleic acids.

We have two chickens, two eggs, and no answer to the old problem of which came first. In this article we present a view gaining attention in the origin-of-life community that takes the question out of the hatchery and places it squarely in the realm of accessible, plausible chemistry. As we see it, the early steps on the way to life are an inevitable, incremental result of the operation of the laws of chemistry and physics operating under the conditions that existed on the early Earth, a result that can be understood in terms of known or at least knowable laws of nature.

As such, the early stages in the emergence of life are no more surprising, no more accidental, than water flowing downhill. The new approach requires that we adopt new ways of looking at two important fields of science. As we will see below, we will have to adjust our view of both cellular biochemistry and thermodynamics. Before we talk about these new ideas, however, it will be useful to place them in context by outlining a little of the history of research on the origin of life.

Most historians would say that the modern era of experimental research in origin-of-life studies began in a basement laboratory in the chemistry department of the University of Chicago in Harold Urey, a Nobel laureate in chemistry, and Stanley Miller, then a graduate student, put together a tabletop apparatus designed to look at the kinds of chemical processes that might have occurred on the planet soon after its birth.

They showed that organic molecules in this case amino acids could be created from inorganic materials by natural environmental conditions such as acidic solution, heat and electrical discharge lightningwithout the mediation of enzymes.Perhaps the most fundamental and at the same time the least understood biological problem is the origin of life.

It is central to many scientific and philosophical problems and to any consideration of extraterrestrial life. Most of the hypotheses of the origin of life will fall into one of four categories:. Hypothesis 1, the traditional contention of theology and some philosophyis in its most general form not inconsistent with contemporary scientific knowledge, although scientific knowledge is inconsistent with a literal interpretation of the biblical accounts given in chapters 1 and 2 of Genesis and in other religious writings.

Hypothesis 2 not of course inconsistent with 1 was the prevailing opinion for centuries. A typical 17th-century view follows:. To question this is to question reasonsense, and experience. If he doubts of this, let him go to Egypt, and there he will find the fields swarming with mice begot of the mud of the Nylus [Nile], to the great calamity of the inhabitants.

It was not until the Renaissancewith its burgeoning interest in anatomythat such spontaneous generation of animals from putrefying matter was deemed impossible. In the 18th century an Italian priest, Lazzaro Spallanzanishowed that fertilization of eggs by sperm was necessary for the reproduction of mammals.

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Yet the idea of spontaneous generation died hard. Even though it was clear that large animals developed from fertile eggs, there was still hope that smaller beings, microorganisms, spontaneously generated from debris. Many felt it was obvious that the ubiquitous microscopic creatures generated continually from inorganic matter. Maggots were prevented from developing on meat by covering it with a flyproof screen.

Yet grape juice could not be kept from fermenting by putting over it any netting whatever. Pouchet argued, defensibly, that life must somehow arise from nonliving matter; if not, how had life come about in the first place? The microbiological certainty that life always comes from preexisting life in the form of cells inhibited many post-Pasteur scientists from discussions of the origin of life at all.

Many were, and still are, reluctant to offend religious sentiment by probing this provocative subject. Toward the end of the 19th century, hypothesis 3 gained currency.

Swedish chemist Svante A. This idea, of course, avoids rather than solves the problem of the origin of life.

essay origin of life

It seems extremely unlikely that any live organism could be transported to Earth over interplanetary or, worse yet, interstellar distances without being killed by the combined effects of cold, desiccation in a vacuum, and radiation. Although English naturalist Charles Darwin did not commit himself on the origin of life, others subscribed to hypothesis 4 more resolutely.

The famous British biologist T. However, they had extremely vague ideas about how this might be accomplished. In the following discussion the word organic implies no necessary biological origin. The origin-of-life problem largely reduces to determination of an organic, nonbiological source of certain processes such as the identity maintained by metabolismgrowthand reproduction i.

Indeed, modern astrophysicists do think about the origin of matter. The evidence is convincing that thermonuclear reactionseither in stellar interiors or in supernova explosions, generate all the chemical elements of the periodic table more massive than hydrogen and helium. Supernova explosions and stellar winds then distribute the elements into the interstellar mediumfrom which subsequent generations of stars and planets form.

These thermonuclear processes are frequent and well-documented. Some thermonuclear reactions are more probable than others. These facts lead to the idea that a certain cosmic distribution of the major elements occurs throughout the universe.A living thing can exist simply as a one celled microorganism, or as complex as a human being.

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The big question is, where did it all began? For many years, scientists Thesis Statement: I am going to inform class of origin of the greyhound from the ancient times and up to the middle ages. Organizational Pattern: Chronologically I. Introduction A. They are always happy to see you Life is a state that distinguishes organisms from non-living objects, such as non- lifeand dead organisms.

Living organisms are capable of growth and reproduction, some can communicate and many can adapt to their environment through changes originating internally. A physical characteristic of life Ancient Israel: Canaanite Origins Introduction An analysis by way of comparison is made to postulate ancient Israelite origins come from a pre-existing indigenous geopolitical group of people known as Canaanites, not an influx of freed Egyptians slaves miraculously delivered from their bondage What are the characteristics of planetary systems orbiting other stars, and do they harbor life?

The Astrophysics Theme addresses these questions via an integrated strategy incorporating a robust research and technology program, at least nine operating I surround myself with nothing but positive.

I strive for what I actually want and need in my life because I do not like to waste my time, I mean we do only have one life to live. My dreams and goals are not only my encouragement, but my values as well. I want to make a difference in These three aspects are listed among the "inalienable rights" of man. The role of art in our life is an all embracing notion such as music, painting, theatre, literature and so on. Art has the most important role in the development of the mankind.

Especially theater from ancient time to nowadays has influence people. The origins of modern-day theatre lies in Greece. Cynthia Hibbs-Hussain Biology II Week 1 Narrative The Origin Of Multicellular Life The theory of evolution presented by Charles Darwin, supports that natural selection, over time could through mutation of already established organisms lead to the development of new species The good life in ancient India was valuing social class, literature and philosophy in order to have structure within the society and to live life morally correct.

In Ancient India, social divisions were enforced to ensure a stable They left behind the old goal of farming to maintain a livelihood.

Free Essays on Origin Of Life

Instead, they began to see Purkiss An activity I find amusing Ballet is the activity I find amusing in many ways. Ballet is a formalized type of performative dance, the origins of which date lay in sixteenth- and seventeenth-century.

Ballet is the activity I find abusing because I have a passion for the art of ballet, the Hindus do not believe in a single lifesingle set of teachings, or a single deity. In fact, Hinduism consists of many religious practices that have evolved since approximately BC University Life Can live in the deep Sea Deep, under the sea floor, with reduced photosynthesis and little organic matter coming from above, the sea floor of the ocean is a marine desert, its life more sparse than in other ocean basins.

Photosynthesis is not the only basis for life : locally, methane and hydrogen The origins of the Cold War cannot be denied as being most obviously and most forefront due to the greatThe origin of life on Earth is a scientific problem which is not yet solved. There are many ideasbut few clear facts. Most experts agree that all life today evolved by common descent from a single primitive lifeform.

This is in accord with the philosophy of naturalism : only natural causes are admitted. It is not known if metabolism came first or genetics. The main hypothesis which supports genetics first is the RNA world hypothesisand the one which supports metabolism first is the protein world hypothesis. Another big problem is how cells developed. Bernal and others is the origin of the cell membrane.

By concentrating the chemicals in one place, the cell membrane performs a vital function. The earliest claimed lifeforms are fossilized microorganisms or microfossils. They were found in iron and silica -rich rocks which were once hydrothermal vents in the Nuvvuagittuq greenstone belt of Quebec, Canada. These rocks are as old as 4. The tubular forms they contain are shown in a report. A scientific study from showed that geological formations of stromatolites 3.

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Therefore, if life originated on Earth, this happened sometime between 4. This is the background to the latest discovery discussed above. The earliest evidence of life comes from the Isua supercrustal belt in Western Greenlandand from similar formations in the nearby Akilia Islands. This is because a high level of the lighter isotope of carbon is found there. Living things take up lighter isotopes because this takes less energy. These isotopic fingerprints are preserved in the rocks.

With this evidence, Mojzis suggested that life existed on the planet already by 3.

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A few scientists think life might have been carried from planet to planet by the transport of spores. This idea, now known as panspermiawas first put forward by Arrhenius. Until the early 19th century many people believed in the regular spontaneous generation of life from non-living matter. This was called spontaneous generationand was disproved by Louis Pasteur. He showed that without spores no bacteria or viruses grew on sterile material.

In a letter to Joseph Dalton Hooker on 11 February[18] Charles Darwin proposed a natural process for the origin of life. He suggested that the original spark of life may have begun in a "warm little pond, with all sorts of ammonia and phosphoric saltslights, heat, electricity, etc. A protein compound was then chemically formed ready to undergo still more complex changes".

He went on to explain that "at the present day such matter would be instantly devoured or absorbed, which would not have been the case before living creatures were formed". No real progress was made until when Alexander Oparin reasoned that atmospheric oxygen prevented the synthesis of the organic molecules. Organic molecules are the necessary building blocks for the evolution of life. In his The Origin of Life[20] [21] Oparin argued that a "primordial soup" of organic molecules could be created in an oxygen-less atmosphere through the action of sunlight.

These would combine in ever-more complex fashions until they formed droplets. These droplets would " grow " by fusion with other droplets, and " reproduce " through fission into daughter droplets, and so have a primitive metabolism in which those factors which promote "cell integrity" survive, those that do not become extinct.

Many modern theories of the origin of life still take Oparin's ideas as a starting point. Around the same time J.Overtime there have been many concepts attempting to explain how life originated. Ranging from theistic creation to spontaneous generation, such as the premise that maggots were created from leaving rotting flesh outside, there have been a multitude of argued concepts.

While modern science may dispel mainstream beliefs of the past, there are still many unanswered questions surrounding the origin of life. The Earth is billions of years old.

essay origin of life

As tough as it may be to tell a young child how babies are made, it does not compare to the complexity of explaining how the entire universe began. Every human has a natural desire to discover the truth, but it stands as one of the most controversial subjects. Others, Creationists, believe life and matter. The oldest rocks on Earth found to date are the Acasta Gneisses in northwestern Canada near the Great Slave Lake, which are four point three billion years old.

The study of the origin of life on Earth, more specifically abiogenesis, is the natural process of life arising from non-living matter. Life on Earth is believed to have began from organic compounds about three point eight to four billion years ago. Despite several competing theories for how life arose on Earth. The concept of the origin of life is an existential question that has caused conflict within many parts of society.

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It is common to go through life pondering how everything came about. How did we get her?

The Origin of Life

How was the earth originally created? How were plants made, mountains sculpted and animals created? Although these are all highly existential questions, there are difficult to give affirmative answers to. It is through the biological field that scientist attempt to bring closure and draw conclusions. Allah then created the universe in six days The Koran These six days can be interpreted as six distinct periods or eons Doge The reason the six days can be interpreted is because of the word youm.

Early Chinese Neolihic Food is one of the most biological needs of human, so obtaining food has always been in human priority. So the question here is that if our ancient could hunt and gather, why did some ancient societies turn to food production and sedentism?Please join StudyMode to read the full document. This paper will discuss various scientists' theories and experiments as they strove to discover how life began, and the processes that might have occurred in order to develop and create the world we are now familiar with today.

Recent discovered functions of RNA have suggested that RNA provides a crucial framework in the evolution of the first cells, which may have been assembled from RNA comprised of nucleotides.

Sidney W. Fox, a scientist at the University of Miami produced membrane-bound structures known as proteinoid microspheres. These microspheres can carry out some chemical reactions that resemble real living cells.

Origin of life

They grow slowly and eventually bud off smaller microspheres. It has even been hypothesized that comets and meteorites containing carbonaceous material hit the Earth with great force, and may have been a source of organic compounds such as lipid-like materials. David W. Deamer at the University of California and his co-workers extracted these organic materials from the carbon containing meteorites. Inevitably, some of the molecules assembled into membrane-bound spheres, possibly What are the origins of life on Earth?

This question has been highly debated by scientists for a long time. Scientists are trying to determine what makes Earth so unique that life thrives here but in no other planets that we are aware of. There are several theories that scientists have proposed in trying to determine the origins of life on Earth.

Some theorize that life derived from an extraterrestrial source, others believe autotrophs were the source, and other groups hypothesizes that heterotrophs were the origin of life on Earth. Currently, the heterotroph hypothesis is the most accepted theory of how life started on Earth, but there are proponents of the other theories, as well.

It was put forward that there was actually an extraterrestrial source for life on Earth based on evidence that scientists found from meteorites that crashed into Earth.

Scientists studying meteorites found that they carried organic materials from where they originated which helped to carry the belief forward that Scientists have been continuously presented with questions regarding the mystery that is life.

What is lifeand how did it get started? Their responses to these questions has varied over the years as advances in technology have led to new evidence being brought in from a ranging variety of fields. In the summer ofJ. William Schopf, a paleobiologist reportedly found fossilized imprints of microbial communities between layers of rock that were 3. This, along with other evidence indicated that life was well established only a billion years after earth's formation, which is a faster evolution than previously thought Time,p.

This belief that life evolved ever so quickly, induced scientists to attempt to create real life in the lab. The goal was to simulate the earliest organism in existence.

James Tour: The Mystery of the Origin of Life

Theories for the origin of life has been around since the beginning of civilization. However, It was Charles Darwin who first introduced a biologically possible theory that is still intact today. Darwin suggested that life grew in a "warm little pond" of organic chemicals that, over a long period of time, gave life to the first organisms.

As this theory evolved, the pond became an ocean. In a breakthrough experiment conducted by Stanley Miller inthe first reasonable experimental evidence for Darwin's theory was There have been a number of scientists who have produces a number of plausible theories.


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